Underwater caves once hosted the Americas’ oldest known ochre mines

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Bruce Bower (ScienceNews) reports that cave divers on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula have found evidence of a mining operation started 12,000 years ago. The now-submerged caves in Quintana Roo hold signs of red ochre, a pigment associated with ancient paintings. He based the report on the academic article “Paleoindian ochre mines in the submerged caves of the Yucatán Peninsula, Quintana Roo, Mexico” (Science Advances), which states that “The cave passages exhibit preserved evidence for ochre extraction pits, speleothem digging tools, shattered and piled flowstone debris, cairn navigational markers, and hearths yielding charcoal from highly resinous wood species. The sophistication and extent of the activities demonstrate a readiness to venture into the dark zones of the caves to prospect and collect what was evidently a highly valued mineral resource.” Bower writes:

Ancient Americans ventured deep into caves along a stretch of Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula to mine a red pigment that could have had both practical and ritual uses, researchers say.

Discoveries of mining-related artifacts and digging areas by divers in three now-submerged cave systems indicate that people there removed a natural pigment called red ochre, say archaeologist Brandi MacDonald of the University of Missouri in Columbia and her colleagues. Radiocarbon dates of burned wood from fires used to illuminate mining areas place humans at these sites between roughly 12,000 and 10,000 years ago, making it the oldest evidence of ochre mining in the Americas, the investigators report July 3 in Science Advances.

Previous finds have suggested that ancient Americans used red ochre in many ways, including as an antiseptic, sunscreen, hide-tanning agent and for body painting and other symbolic purposes (SN: 2/12/14).

Remnants of ancient pigment mining uncovered by MacDonald’s team raise the possibility that some miners may have died and been left where they perished. Divers previously found at least 10 human skeletons in Yucatán caves dating to as early as around 12,000 years ago, before rising seas inundated the underground chambers (SN: 2/6/20).

In one cave system, an approximately 900-meter-long series of tunnels dubbed La Mina contained extensive evidence of red ochre extraction. Several narrow passages leading into La Mina contained piles of stones and broken pieces of cave growths that miners apparently used as navigation guides. Other broken-off cave growths had been wielded as digging tools. Most of the 352 pits and other intentionally disturbed areas in La Mina contain remnants of ochre deposits, the researchers say. Ochre samples from La Mina were bright red and chemically suitable for making paint, they add.

[A diver collects burned wood from a fire pit in the oldest known ochre mine in the Americas. People extracted red pigment from chambers deep in a now-submerged Mexican cave system between around 12,000 and 10,000 years ago, scientists say.]

For original article, see https://www.sciencenews.org/article/underwater-caves-ochre-mines-yucatan-peninsula

See academic article at https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/27/eaba1219

Also see video at https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-latin-america-53294830/underwater-cave-in-mexico-reveals-ancient-secrets

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