Lizette Alvarez and Abby Goodnough (The New York Times) explore the sad conditions of the health care system in Puerto Rico. In my view, unless you can pay your medical bills out of pocket, the island’s health care system has been nightmarish ever since I can remember. When I read this title, I was aghast; how can the health care crisis get any worse? For a deeply depressing answer, read this:
The first visible sign that the health care system in Puerto Rico was seriously in trouble was when a steady stream of doctors — more than 3,000 in five years — began to leave the island for more lucrative, less stressful jobs on the mainland. Now, as Puerto Rico faces another hefty cut to a popular Medicare program and grapples with an alarming shortage of Medicaid funds, its health care system is headed for an all-out crisis, which could further undermine the island’s gutted economy.
On an island where more than 60 percent of residents receive Medicare or Medicaid — an indicator of Puerto Rico’s poverty and rapidly aging population — the dwindling funds have set off outpourings of concern among patients and doctors, protest rallies and intense lobbying in Washington.
And while the crisis is playing out most vividly today, its cause dates back decades and stems, in large part, from a vast disparity in federal funding for health care on the island compared with the 50 states. This disparity is partly responsible for $25 billion of Puerto Rico’s $73 billion debt, as its government was forced to borrow over time to keep the Medicaid program afloat, according to economists. “These are a cascade of cuts that will have disastrous, gigantic implications,” said Dennis Rivera, the chairman of the Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis Coalition, a group of doctors, hospitals, health care advocates, unions and insurance companies lobbying the Obama administration and Congress. “Health care in Puerto Rico is headed for a collapse.”
In January, the federal government is supposed to cut payments to Medicare Advantage plans in Puerto Rico by 11 percent. The plans, offered by private companies, are a popular alternative to Medicare, often providing extra benefits and accessibility. Three-quarters of the Medicare population on the island is enrolled in Advantage, and patients, many of them poor and chronically ill, worry about the impact of the cuts on costs and benefits. The cuts are expected to lead to higher co-pays for medication and hospitalization, among other things, said Dr. Richard Shinto, the president and chief executive of InnovaCare, an insurance company with three Advantage plans in Puerto Rico. [. . .]
This is in part because of how doctors practice here; they tend to be in solo practices, making it difficult to meet all requirements. Lower funding levels also complicated efforts to meet standards. The island’s Medicaid program — called Mi Salud, or My Health — serves nearly 1.6 million people, or 45 percent of the island’s population, the largest share in the United States, and it is also struggling, said Ricardo Rivera, the executive director of the Puerto Rico Health Insurance Administration, which carries out the Medicaid program.
Health care makes up 20 percent of the Puerto Rican economy, which has been in a slow decline as manufacturing jobs have disappeared and the government has borrowed more than it could pay back. Because of the island’s precarious finances, the Medicaid program lacks access to credit and is so short on cash that it owes providers $200 million, a figure it has whittled down from $350 million. It is also spending a one-time $6.4 billion federal grant at a much faster pace than expected, Mr. Rivera said.
The Medicaid program, which relies on both federal and commonwealth funds, could run out of the grant money as early as the end of 2016, three years earlier than anticipated, Mr. Rivera said. This could mean that 900,000 people will have to be dropped from the program.
Puerto Rico cannot use the federal health insurance exchange under the Affordable Care Act, and it chose not to create its own exchange because its citizens do not pay federal income taxes and thus are not eligible for the subsidies that make exchange plans more affordable.
A spokesman for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services said the agency was aware of the growing concerns and was working weekly with a group of politicians, health care officials, advocates and insurance companies here to find solutions. So far, none have been offered.
The reduction in Medicare Advantage funding is meant to bring federal payments for that program more in line with traditional Medicare fee-for-service rates in Puerto Rico. Advantage plans on the mainland have received cuts in recent years for the same reason, although generally not as big.
But Puerto Rican officials and health care experts have long criticized the federal formula for calculating its fee-for-service rates as unfair, and point out that even the Virgin Islands, a much smaller commonwealth, gets considerably more money for Advantage.
Puerto Rican lawmakers and doctors warn that it will be more expensive for the United States to ignore the problem for one reason: Those who need medical care can quickly settle with relatives on the mainland, where it is pricier.
[Many thanks to Rod Fusco for bringing this item to our attention.]